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Where We Are

The Pacific Energy Innovation Association (PEIA) holds
monthly (except summer) "Energy Breakfasts"
Place: November 24th, 2020 - Zoom webinar 

What We Do

Pacific Energy Innovation Association (PEIA) offers objective, thought-provoking dialogue on energy supply, demand and the associated technologies and policies required by sustainable economies in the near- and long-term.

Who We Are

The Pacific Energy Innovation Association (PEIA) is an independent, non-profit association of energy professionals incorporated under the Societies Act of British Columbia.

  • Where We Are
  • What We Do
  • Who We Are

Adapting & Applying California's GHG Strategies in BC & Canada

Monday, April 30th, 2007
The Vancouver Club, Vancouver, BC


Below are some notable observations, conclusions and recommendations emerging from Forum 2007 (Please see attached synopsis document for complete details). The bracketed references following each item refer to the relevant sections of this Synopsis.


  • The climate change discussion means talking about energy efficiency & renewables (B.1, E.1). 
  • Environmental agencies lead on climate change, but most action is from energy agencies (C.3).
  • California has a balanced approach to GHG reduction: regulations, best practices, incentives, market mechanisms.  It has rejected a purely command & control regulatory approach (C.3).
  • Market issues are the most challenging – establishing sector responsibilities to reduce (C.4). 
  • California must reduce emissions from electricity imports, despite its lack of  jurisdiction.  A load-based (not generation-based) approach is anticipated, whereby the load-serving entities (utilities) receive a carbon budget & they decide on what generation sources to spend it (C.5). 
  • In California and BC, transportation is the main source (40%) of GHG emissions.  California’s Low-Carbon Fuel Standard aims to reduce the carbon content of fuels 10% by 2020 (C.6). 
  • Ten Success Factors for GHG Reduction: Energy efficiency must be integral to utility planning;  Stringent standards & codes; Effective messaging; Portfolio of programs; Partnership programs;  Evaluation;  Market transformation;  Technology;  Collaboration;  Commitment (D.6). 
  • Oregon has comprehensive set of bills & benchmarks – 10% saving on energy, $1B/year (E.8). 
  • Ports are a concern: generate traffic & vessel emissions – West Coast ports will harmonize (G.2). 
  • Community action is required on energy efficiency – building codes, official community plans (K.2, K.4). 
  • Dynamic pricing works to change behaviour, but it is rarely used (M.5, page 31). 
  • Stakeholder processes exist in California, but not in BC – time consuming, but effective (M.7).
  • Pine-beetle kill in BC is a huge climate change message (G.1).


• Energy efficiency and GHG control programs must focus on four factors: Energy, Environment, Economy, Community (B.1, D.1, D.6).
• Customers have absorbed huge fuel price increases, without much change in behaviour;  thus, behaviour forcing initiatives are needed on the supplier-side (C.6).
• Transport fuel emissions will get worse (more Tar Sands, etc.) in the absence of standards (C.6).
• National and international collaboration is essential – WCI, Climate Registry ...  to set targets, measure and report (C.7).
• Transport emissions are #1 source; half personal, requiring denser communities & transit (G.2).
• Most 2020 targets can be achieved with existing technology (G.5).
• Municipalities can do much to advance the climate change agenda (H.1).
• Green rating systems for vehicle fleets result in improved operation & vehicle mix (K.6, K.7).
• Average Canadian emits 5 t/yr carbon – challenge is to change consumption habits (L.1, L.2).
• Carbon tax (clear impact) is generally preferable to Cap & Trade (uncertain impact).  In Europe, under Cap & Trade, the price of carbon collapsed from € 20 to € 1 – then recovered (J.4).
• Carbon tax is simpler than Cap & Trade, but nothing happens if it’s not high enough (M.3).
• The issue now is how to meet GHG and energy goals, not whether (F.5).
• Our quality of life is the result of plentiful cheap energy.  This will change. (I.1).
• There are three basic energy sources: fossil fuels, nuclear power, renewables (J.2).
• There are four basic end-uses: transportation, industry, commercial, residential (J.2).
• Good geothermal sites exist in PNW, no serious discussion.  Nuclear unlikely in PNW (H.2).
• Renewable energy sources are intermittent, but can complement each other (I.4).
• A system dominated by renewables would involve intermittent sources, power shaping, and a smart grid, able to respond in milli-seconds to unpredictable changes in load and supply (I.3).
• Plug-in Hybrids can provide significant storage for renewables-dominated systems (I.6).
• Of BC’s large fossil fuel exports, only the GHG of production is counted, not end-use (H.1).
• Hydrogen is costly to produce and currently has limited applications: e.g. Space shuttle (J.6).
• Electric vehicles with batteries are 90% efficient;  with hydrogen fuel cell, only 34% (J.3).
• Plug-in hybrids recharged from grid have battery efficiency, and good range (J.3).
• Electricity is still sold on “push” basis (other industries it’s demand pull) and is one of the few industries where customers have little understanding of their usage; this needs to change (M.2).


Background Notes

7:00 Registration & Continental Breakfast
8:00 Opening Remarks
 Conrad Guelke – Forum Chair, Director, PEIA.
8:10 BC’s Energy/GHG Plan  (Session Chair – Conrad Guelke, Director, PEIA)
 Hon. Richard Neufeld – Minister, Energy, Mines & Petroleum Resources.
8:30   California’s Greenhouse Gas Strategies  (Session Chair – Stephen Hall, Director, PEIA)
 Dan Skopec – Undersecretary, California Environmental Protection Agency.
9:30 Case Examples – Programs that Work  (Session Chair – Bruce Vernon, Director, PEIA)
 Gene Rodrigues – Director, Energy Efficiency, Southern California Edison.
10:00 Refreshment Break
10:30 GHG Reductions in Pacific Northwest  (Session Chair – Penny Cochrane, Director, PEIA)
 Michael Grainey – Director, Oregon Department of Energy.
 Jay Manning – Director, Washington Department of Ecology.
 Chris Trumpy – Deputy Minister, BC Ministry of Environment.
12:00 Lunch Break  (Session Chair – Alex Tunner, President, PEIA)
12:40 Luncheon Address – An Energy Vision for Western Canada
 Dr. John MacDonald, OC – President, Day4 Energy Inc.
13:30 Western Canada’s GHG Responses (Session Chair – Janet Benjamin, RIX Communications)
 Technology:  Dr. Robert Evans – Director, Clean Energy Research Centre, UBC.
 Efficiency: Jim Vanderwal – Program Manager, Fraser Basin Council.
 Lifestyle: Deborah Jones – Journalist, Contributor to Globe & Mail.
15:00 Refreshment Break
15:30 Next Steps – GHG Reductions & Impacts  (Session Chair – Alex Tunner, President, PEIA)
 Dr. Roger Gale – President & CEO, GF Energy Inc., Washington, DC.
16:30 Networking Reception  (Session Chair, Bruce Vernon, Director, PEIA)
18:00 Forum Concludes

PEIA Mission

To initiate and promote discussion and action for energy innovation, efficiency and sustainability.